Historically often considered as worthless morasses, peat bogs cover three per cent of the world’s land surface. They are unique records of history and today they are recognised as beautiful habitats providing environmental benefits from biodiversity to climate regulation. However, they are threatened by drainage, land reclamation for agriculture and peat cutting for fuel, which has significantly reduced the extent and condition of these ecosystems on a global scale. Transforming the management of wetland, peatland and waterlogged sites is crucial. Henry Chapman is Professor of Archaeology at the University of Birmingham and is a regular guest on archaeological programmes including C4’s Time Team.